Federal Ministry


The named scientific works are funded by the following establishments:

Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMWi)
Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)
Ministerium für Innovation, Wissenschaft und Forschung des Landes NRW (NRW)

Logo Logo

Selected scientific works:
  • Carbon2Chem - "Carbon2Chem-2 L-4: C2+ alcohols, C2+ oIefine, synthetic fuel components"
  • Methanolstandard – "Investigation of the technical basis for the standardization of methanol fuels in Europe"
  • GNOSIS – "Holistic evaluation of electric flying"
  • Methcar – " Joint project: MethCar – Methane engines for passenger cars
    Subproject: Injector robustness and exhaust gas catalysis as a function of fuel composition"
  • C3-Mobility – "Closed Carbon Cycle – Mobility: Climate neutral fuels for traffic of the future"
  • Leimot – "Lightweight-Engine: Weight reduction of an internal combustion engine by utilizing a purposefully structural optimization and using metal- plastic hybrid components"

Completed projects:

  • X-EMU – "Development and Validation of a High-Performance Fuel Cell Propulsion System for Hybrid EMU railcars in a Modular Traction Design System"
  • P2X Kopernikus – "Oxymethylenether: Fuels and polymers based on CO2 and hydrogen"
  • XME-Diesel – "xME-Diesel – (Bio-) Methyl ethers as alternative fuels for the bivalent Diesel operation"
  • VARIMOT – "Variable systems to increase the efficiency of gasoline engines with small displacement"
  • GreenREx-BETRIEB – "Development of a bio-gas-powered Range Extender"
  • Anfahrt – "Alternative commercial vehicle drive trains for trucks and busses – clean and energy efficient road transportation“
  • BREEZE – "BREEZE! Fuel Cell Range Extender for Electric Vehicles: Zero Emission! "

  • TEAM – "Development of technologies for energy efficient drive trains of mobile power engines"
  • Europa Hybrid PlugIn - "Entwicklung eines elektrischen Antriebs für ein rückspeisefähiges PlugIn-Hybridfahrzeug mit optimiertem Batteriemanagement und niedrigem Verbrauch"

  Carbon2Chem Logo

Carbon2Chem-2 L-4: C2+ alcohols, C2+ oIefine, synthetic fuel components

Acronym Carbon2Chem

Federal Ministry of Education and Research

Projectnumber 03EW0008D

Carbon2Chem® is an initiative that started in 2016 under the direction of Thyssen Krupp. Numerous industrial companies, together with Max Planck and the Fraunhofer Society as well as universities are working together with the aim of producing valuable primary products for fuels, the plastics industry or fertilizers from carbon dioxide, an unavoidable by-product of steel production. The first phase of the project that ended in May 2020 focused on the development of sustainable processes with the emphasis on technical feasibility and economic efficiency. In the upcoming second phase the aim is the validation of the developed processes for industrial standards. This should ultimately lead to low-emission steel production. For this purpose, VKA is investigating the influence of the developed fuels on the efficiency and pollutant emissions when used in combustion engines.

Period 01.06.2020 – 31.05.2024


  Logo for project methanol standard
Title Methanolstandard – Investigation of the technical basis for the standardization of methanol fuels in Europe
Acronym Methanolstandard
Funding Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi)
Projectnumber 19 I 20005H

At the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference a reduction in CO2 emissions of 38 % by 2030 and 90 % by 2050 was agreed upon. To achieve this, CO2-neutral fuels need to be used in the transport sector.

Power-to-Gas or Power-to-Liquid concepts can provide regenerative fuels. In mobile applications, liquid fuels have the advantage of high energy density and easier storage. Methanol is one promising fuel, partially due to the high readiness level of the production process (TRL 9). Therefore, the CO2 reduction potential of methanol fuel, even medium term, can be assessed as high.

The aim of this research project is to provide a basis for the standardization of suitable methanol fuels in Europe. Germany should serve a model and provide a standard which can then be extended to all of Europe. This should pave the way for the certification and market introduction of methanol fuels.

To achieve this, the production of methanol using regenerative paths, methanol handling and the methanol infrastructure will be analyzed and potential for optimization will be identified. The interaction between methanol and existing vehicle components, aging behavior and the influence of additives on material compatibility and aging will also be investigated. Furthermore, methanol use in spark ignition engines as drop-in fuel (M15) and in specially designed engines (M100) will be investigated.

The Institute for combustion engines (VKA) will conduct experimental investigation into the cold start behavior, the efficiency potential and the influence of additives on combustion and emissions.
Period 08/2020 – 07/2022


  Logo Gnosis
Title Holistic evaluation of electric flying
Acronym GNOSIS
Funding Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi)
Projectnumber 20E1916A

Funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), the 13 project partners investigate the (partial) electrification of aviation. The usage of electrical components is seen as a possibility to reduce operating costs as well as greenhouse gas, nitrogen oxide as well as noise emissions. This holds true for the hybridization of current aircraft models, but is also a chance to develop new mobility options, for example the operation of urban and regional air taxis.

Current state of research shows that an electrification of aviation is not practical by default. In fact, any new concept needs to be proven individually for variations of system architecture and aircraft configuration. However, GNOSIS operates under the hypothesis that the introduction of a new technology, especially a (partial) electrification, will reveal new optima which can hold up against the local optimum of the classical system architecture in an overall evaluation.

A holistic analysis of the potentials of electric flight has not been undertaken yet. This is exactly what is done within the GNOSIS project. Following a well-structured technology selection, an in-depth analysis on aircraft vehicle as well as transportation system level is carried out. The evaluation will consider two assessment horizons (2025 and 2050) and at first considers an aircraft with 19 seats while later in the projects also 9 and 50 seat configurations are evaluated. The results will be integrated into a life-cycle assessment.

Period 05/2020 - 06/2022


  Logo MethQuest
Title Joint project: MethCar - Methane engines for passenger cars
Subproject: Injector robustness and exhaust gas catalysis as a function of fuel composition
Acronym MethCar
Funding Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi)
Projektnumber 19/18010 G

The MethCar project is one of six collaborative projects within the lead project MethQuest, in which science and industry partners develop and analyze technologies, by which methane-based fuels from renewable sources can be obtained and used in mobile and stationary applications.

Methane from Power-to-Gas processes offers numerous advantages over other Power-to-X options: The manufacturing processes are less complex and show significantly higher efficiencies. This has a positive effect on production costs. A further advantage is the problem-free, successive replacement of fossil natural gas by compressed or liquefied methane from renewable energies (EE Methane).

The task of the joint MethCar project is to develop a novel passenger car gas engine concept using EE-C Methane. The special properties of compressed EE Methane promise a particularly high efficiency in a specifically adapted passenger car engine.

The institute of Internal Combustion Engines at the RWTH Aachen University (VKA) carries out scientific, experimental investigations on test engines, using EE-C methane with different fuel compositions (H2, Sulphur, compressor oil) within the framework of the MethCar network. The focus lies on the evaluation of the durability of direct injection systems and the functionality of catalytic converters.

Period 09/2018 - 08/2021


  Logo C3-Mobility
Title Closed Carbon Cycle – Mobility: Climate neutral fuels for traffic of the future
Acronym C³ - Mobility
Funding Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi)
Projektnumber 19I18006P

The joint project aims to develop and demonstrate new ways into the CO2-neutral mobility of the future. It refers to the BMWi's funding announcement "Energy Turnaround in Transport: Sector Coupling through the Use of Electricity-Based Fuels" of spring 2017. To this end, a comprehensive consortium of 28 partners from all the areas addressed in the announcement has formed in order to be able to adequately deal with the problem described in its entirety.

The most effective way to transport, store and use large amounts of energy in transport is by using liquid energy sources. In the future, the use of regenerative produced fuel based on methanol appears to be the most sensible option. In addition to its direct use as a fuel, its (local) further processing will also be investigated. Furthermore, approaches will be presented to reduce fleet emissions already today by adding stream-based fuels (drop-in fuel). To this end, MtG (methanol-to-gasoline) will be produced in a demonstration plant and its use in gasoline engines will be shown. In the diesel engine, 1-octanol is available as drop-in fuel. For future applications, 2-butanol will continue to be considered as drop-in fuel, octane booster and pure fuel for gasoline engines as well as OME/DME under consideration of the multi-fuel capability for diesel engines.

The vehicle suitability of the new fuels is to be validated under real driving conditions; their efficiency and environmental compatibility are to be assessed as a whole in the production and consumption chains as well as in sales and market launch.
Period 08/2018 - 07/2021


  Logo Leimot

Lightweight-Engine: Weight reduction of an internal combustion engine by utilizing a purposefully structural optimization and using metal- plastic hybrid components

Acronym LeiMot

Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi)




The objective of the project “LeiMot” is the development of an internal combustion engine with a reduced overall weight while improving efficiency, operational behavior, thermal management and NVH.

New design, dimensioning, and manufacturing processes will take a higher stake in the prospective product development. Therefore, it is a goal to examine the utilization of potentials of those procedures for future combustion engines. With today’s conventional manufacturing processes (e.g. casting), there are no further big development leaps to expect in the midterm.

The projects approach is to design and develop engine components without restrictions like cores or demolding, which are usually the hard limits for the layout of parts like the crank case or cylinder head.

These goals shall be achieved by using selective laser melting (SLM) respectively laser powderbed fusion (LPBF) for metallic engine components alongside high performance fiber reinforced plastics. The intelligent use of those new processes targets the raise of the starting level for future combustion engine developments.


07/2018 – 06/2021